Service Design

1Introduction 2Serv. Mgmt. 3Principles 4Processes 5Tech Activities 6Organization 7Tech Considerations 8Implementation 9Challenges Appendeces

6. Organizing for Service Design

6.1Roles 6.2Activity Analysis 6.3Skills 6.4R & R

For Service Design to be successful, it is essential to define the roles and responsibilities within the organization of the various activities.

When designing a service or a process, it is imperative that all the roles are clearly defined. A trademark of high performing organizations is the ability to make the right decisions quickly and execute them effectively. Whether the decision involves a strategic choice or a critical operation, being clear on who has input, who decides and who takes action will enable the company to move forward rapidly.

The RACI model will be beneficial in enabling decisions to be made with pace and confidence. RACI is an acronym for the four main roles of

Occasionally an expanded version of RACI is used called RACI-VS, with two further roles as follows:

A third variation of the RACI model is RASCI, where the S represents Supportive. This role provides additional resources to conduct the work, or plays a supportive role in implementation, for example. This could be beneficial for IT service implementation. The RACI chart in Table 6.1 shows the structure and power of RACI modelling with the activities down the left-hand side including the actions that need to be taken and decisions that must be made. Across the top, the chart lists the functional roles responsible for carrying out the initiative or playing a part in decision making.

Whether RACI or some other tool or model is used, the important thing is to not just leave the assignment of responsibilities to chance or leave it to the last minute to decide. Conflicts can be avoided and decisions can be made quickly if the roles are allocated in advance.

To build a RACI chart the following steps are required:

Director Service ManagementService Level ManagerProblem ManagerSecurity ManagerProcurement Manager
Activity 1A/RCIIC
Activity 2ARCCC
Activity 3IARIC
Activity 4IARI 
Activity 5IIACI
Table 6.1 Example RACI matrix

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6.1 Functional Roles Analysis

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6.2 Activity Analysis

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6.3 Skills And Attributes

The specific roles within ITIL Service Management all require specific skills, attributes and competences from the people involved to enable them to work effectively and efficiently. However, whatever the role, it is imperative that the person carrying out that role has the following attributes:

The following are examples of attributes required in many of the roles, dependent on the organization and the specific role:

More information about the skills and competences of these roles can be found within the Skills Framework for the Information Age (SFIA - www.sfia.org.uk).

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6.4 Roles And Responsibilities

The following sections document the roles and responsibilities of the various roles within Service Design. In some organizations this could be a full-time individual and in others it could be several people, or it could be a part-time role. In smaller organizations many of these roles may be performed by a single person. This will depend on the size and volatility of the organization. The roles or job titles often vary between organizations. However, what is important is that the roles, responsibilities, processes, dependencies and interfaces are clearly defined and scoped for each individual organization. (See Appendix C for an example process document template.)

The following are illustrations of the main activities within each of the Service Design roles.

6.4.1 Process Owner
A process owner is responsible for ensuring that their process is being performed according to the agreed and documented process and is meeting the aims of the process definition. This includes such tasks as:

6.4.2 Service Design Manager
The key role and responsibilities of the Service Design Manager are covered throughout this publication and they are responsible for the overall coordination and deployment of quality solution designs for services and processes. Responsibilities of the role over and above those of line management of all people involved in Service Design roles include:

6.4.3 IT Planner
An IT Planner is responsible for the production and coordination of IT plans. The main objectives of the role are as follows:

6.4.4 IT Designer/Architect
An IT Designer/Architect is responsible for the overall coordination and design of the required technology. Often Designers and Architects within large organizations would specialize in one of the five aspects of design (see section 3). However, an integrated approach to design should always be adopted, therefore Designers and Architects need to work together within a formal method and framework to ensure consistent and compatible designs are produced. In smaller organizations, some or all of the roles are usually combined, and this is less of an issue, although a formal approach should still be used. Whenever designs are produced, they should always adopt an integrated approach, covering all areas, and should be accepted and signed off by all areas. All designers need to understand how architectures, strategies, designs and plans fit together and all the main aspects of design.

The Designer/Architect should produce a detailed process map that documents all the processes and their high-level interfaces. This ensures that the overall structure is not unnecessarily complex, that the process's central interfaces are part of the design, and provides an overview to everyone on how the customer and all other stakeholders interact with the processes.

To perform the role of Designer or Architect, it is necessary for staff to have good knowledge and practical experience of design philosophies and planning, including Programme, Project and Service Management, methods and principles. The main objectives of the IT Designer/Architect are as follows:

Note: Often Designers and Architects within large organizations would specialize in one of the five aspects of design (see sections 3 and 4 for more detail). However, an integrated approach to design should always be adopted, therefore Designers and Architects need to work together within a formal method and framework to ensure consistent and compatible designs are produced. In smaller organizations, some or all of the roles are usually combined, and this is less of an issue, although a formal approach should still be used. Whenever designs are produced, they should always adopt a holistic approach, covering all areas, and should be accepted and signed off by all areas. All Designers need to understand how architectures, strategies, designs and plans fit together.

6.4.5 Service Catalogue Manager
The Service Catalogue Manager has responsibility for producing and maintaining the Service Catalogue. This includes responsibilities such as:

6.4.6 Service Level Manager
The Service Level Manager has responsibility for ensuring that the aims of Service Level Management are met. This includes responsibilities such as:

6.4.7 Availability Manager
An Availability Manager has responsibility for ensuring that the aims of Availability Management are met. This includes responsibilities such as:

6.4.8 IT Service Continuity Manager
The IT Service Continuity Manager is responsible for ensuring that the aims of IT Service Continuity Management are met. This includes such tasks and responsibilities as:

6.4.9 Capacity Manager
A Capacity Manager has responsibility for ensuring that the aims of Capacity Management are met. This includes such tasks as:

6.4.10 Security Manager
The Security Manager is responsible for ensuring that the aims of Information Security Management are met. This includes such tasks and responsibilities as:

6.4.11 Supplier Manager
The Supplier Manager has responsibility for ensuring that the aims of Supplier Management are met. This includes tasks such as:

Supporting Material
  1. MOF - Assign Roles

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