Service Design

1Introduction 2Serv. Mgmt. 3Principles >4Processes 5Tech Activities 6Organization 7Tech Considerations 8Implementation 9Challenges Appendeces

4. Service Design Process

4.1SC Mgmt 4.2SLM 4.3Capacity Mgmt 4.4Availability Mgmt 4.5 Continuity Mgmt 4.6Security Mgmt 4.7Supplier Mgmt

4.1 Service Catalogue Management

4.1.1 Purpose, Goals and Objectives
The purpose of Service Catalogue Management is to provide a single source of consistent information on all of the agreed services, and ensure that it is widely available to those who are approved to access it. The goal of the Service Catalogue Management process is to ensure that a Service Catalogue is produced and maintained, containing accurate information on all operational services and those being prepared to be run operationally.

The objective of Service Catalogue Management is to manage the information contained within the Service Catalogue, and to ensure that it is accurate and reflects the current details, status, interfaces and dependencies of all services that are being run, or being prepared to run, in the live environment.

4.1.2 Scope
The scope of the Service Catalogue Management process is to provide and maintain accurate information on all services that are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live environment. The Service Catalogue Management activities should include:

4.1.3 Value to the Business
The Service Catalogue provides a central source of information on the IT services delivered by the service provider organization. This ensures that all areas of the business can view an accurate, consistent picture of the IT services, their details and their status. It contains a customer-facing view of the IT services in use, how they are intended to be used, the business processes they enable, and the levels and quality of service the customer can expect for each service.

4.1.4 Policies, Principles And Basic Concepts
Over the years, organizations' IT infrastructures have grown and developed, and there may not be a clear picture of all the services currently being provided and the customers of each service. In order to establish an accurate picture, it is recommended that an IT Service Portfolio containing a Service Catalogue is produced and maintained to provide a central, accurate set of information on all services and to develop a service focused culture.

The Service Portfolio should contain all the future requirements for services and the Service Catalogue should contain details of all services currently being provided or those being prepared for transition to the live environment, a summary of their characteristics, and details of the customers and maintainers of each. A degree of 'detective work' may be needed to compile this list and agree it with the customers (sifting through old documentation, searching program libraries, talking with IT staff and customers, looking at procurement records and talking with suppliers and contractors etc.). If a CMS or any sort of asset database exists, these may provide valuable sources of information, although they should be verified before inclusion within either the Service Portfolio or Service Catalogue. The Service Portfolio is produced as part of Service Strategy and should include participation by those involved in Service Design, Transition, Operation and Improvement. Once a service is 'chartered' (ie., being developed for use by customers)R, Service Design produces the specifications for the service and it is at this point that the service should be added to the Service Catalogue.

Each organization should develop and maintain a policy with regard to both the Portfolio and the Catalogue, relating to the services recorded within them, what details are recorded and what statuses are recorded for each of the services. The policy should also contain details of responsibilities for each section of the overall Service Portfolio and the scope of each of the constituent sections.

The Service Catalogue Management process produces and maintains the Service Catalogue, ensuring that a central, accurate and consistent source of data is provided, recording the status of all operational services or services being transitioned to the live environment, together with appropriate details of each service.

What is a service? This question is not as easy to answer as it may first appear, and many organizations have failed to come up with a clear definition in an IT context. IT staff often confuse a 'service' as perceived by the customer with an IT system. In many cases one 'service' can be made up of other 'services' (and so on), which are themselves made up of one or more IT systems within an overall infrastructure including hardware, software, networks, together with environments, data and applications. A good starting point is often to ask customers which IT services they use and how those services map onto and support their business processes. Customers often have a greater clarity of what they believe a service to be. Each organization needs to develop a policy of what is a service and how it is defined and agreed within their own organization.

To avoid confusion, it may be a good idea to define a hierarchy of services within the Service Catalogue, by qualifying exactly what type of service is recorded, e.g. business service (that which is seen by the customer). Alternatively, supporting services, such as infrastructure services, network services, application services (all invisible to the customer, but essential to the delivery of IT services) will also need to be recorded. This often gives rise to a hierarchy of services incorporating customer services and other related services, including supporting services, shared services and commodity services, each with defined and agreed service levels.

When initially completed, the Service Catalogue may consist of a matrix, table or spreadsheet. Many organizations integrate and maintain their Service Portfolio and Service Catalogue as part of their CMS. By defining each service as a Configuration Item (CI) and, where appropriate, relating these to form a service hierarchy, the organization is able to relate events such as incidents and RFCs to the services affected, thus providing the basis for service monitoring and reporting using an integrated tool (e.g. 'list or give the number of incidents affecting this particular service'). It is therefore essential that changes within the Service Portfolio and Service Catalogue are subject to the Change Management process.

The Service Catalogue can also be used for other Service Management purposes (e.g. for performing a Business Impact Analysis (BIA) as part of IT Service Continuity Planning, or as a starting place for re-distributing workloads, as part of Capacity Management). The cost and effort of producing and maintaining the catalogue, with its relationships to the underpinning technology components, is therefore easily justifiable. If done in conjunction with prioritization of the BIA, then it is possible to ensure that the most important services are covered first. An example of a simple Service Catalogue that can be used as a starting point is given in Appendix G.

Figure 4.3 The Business Service Catalogue and the Technical Service Catalogue
Figure 4.3 The Business Service Catalogue and the Technical Service Catalogue

The Service Catalogue has two aspects:

The relationship between these two aspects is illustrated in Figure 4.3.

Some organizations only maintain either a Business Service Catalogue or a Technical Service Catalogue. The preferred situation adopted by the more mature organizations maintains both aspects within a single Service Catalogue, which is part of a totally integrated Service Management activity and Service Portfolio. More information on the design and contents of a Service Catalogue is contained in Appendix G. The Business Service Catalogue facilitates the development of a much more proactive or even preemptive SLM process, allowing it to develop more into the field of Business Service Management. The Technical Service Catalogue is extremely beneficial when constructing the relationship between services, SLAs, OLAs and other underpinning agreements and components, as it will identify the technology required to support a service and the support group(s) that support the components. The combination of a Business Service Catalogue and a Technical Service Catalogue is invaluable for quickly assessing the impact of incidents and changes on the business. An example of relationships between the Business and Technical portions of a Service Catalogue is shown in Figure 4.4.

4.1.5 Process Activities, Methods and Techniques
Figure 4.4 Example Service Catalogue
Figure 4.4 Example Service Catalogue

The key activities within the Service Catalogue Management process should include:

4.1.6 Triggers, Inputs, Outputs And Interfaces
4.1.6.1 Triggers
The triggers for the Service Catalogue Management process are:

This will include new services, changes to existing services or services being retired.

4.1.6.2 Inputs
There are a number of sources of information that are relevant to the Service Catalogue Management process. These should include:

4.1.6.3 Outputs
The process outputs of SCM are:

4.1.7 Information Management
The key information within the Service Catalogue Management process is that contained within the Service Catalogue. The main input for this information comes from the Service Portfolio and the business via either the Business Relationship Management (BRM) or Service Level Management (SLM) processes. This information needs to be verified for accuracy before being recorded within the Service Catalogue. The information and the Service Catalogue itself need to be maintained using the Change Management process.

4.1.8 Key Performance Indicators
The two main Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) associated with the Service Catalogue and its management are:

Other measurements and KPIs that could be used are:

4.1.9 Challenges, Critical Success Factors and Risks
The major challenge facing the Service Catalogue Management process is that of maintaining an accurate Service Catalogue as part of a Service Portfolio, incorporating both the Business Service Catalogue and the Technical Service Catalogue as part of an overall CMS and SKMS. This is best approached by developing stand-alone spreadsheets or databases before trying to integrate the Service Catalogue and Service Portfolio within the CMS or SKMS. In order to achieve this, the culture of the organization needs to accept that the Catalogue and Portfolio are essential sources of information that everyone within the IT organization needs to use and help maintain. This will often assist in the standardization of the Service Catalogue and the Service Portfolio and enable increase in cost performance through economies of scale.

The main Critical Success Factors for the Service Catalogue Management process are:

The risks associated with the provision of an accurate Service Catalogue are:

Supporting Material
  1. Video - The Service Catalogue
  2. Service Catalogue ICOM Chart
  3. NewScale (pdf) - Creating an Actionable Service Catalogue

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